Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) it is a serious viral disease associated with inflammation of the liver. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, there are currently more than 250 million sufferers worldwide. HBV is usually treated with nucleoside and nucleotide analogues or with interferon.However, these forms of treatment have many side-effects. Current vaccinations to protect against HBV are based on the S protein, a specific component of the HB virus, but are not effective in 10 – 20% of cases.
Using data from 128 people vaccinated against grass pollen allergy, a research group led by Rudolf Valenta from MedUni Vienna's Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology has now shown that this BM32 vaccine induces antibodies exactly at the site where the virus binds to the liver cell, thus preventing infection. Different dosage regimes were tested, and various cross-reactions investigated. The vaccinated people formed antibodies that are capable of recognising and fighting all known forms of the virus. The antibody count appears to be high enough to not only prevent the chronic form of hepatitis B but also to serve as a treatment. It would then be possible to interrupt the cycle of viral infestation of the liver cells and to achieve immunisation.
This study is a first step towards the therapeutic use of vaccination against chronic hepatitis and also represents a completely new concept that could revolutionise current methods of treatment. This work is a result of the collaboration between MedUni Vienna and the Vienna company Viravaxx.
Quantification, epitope mapping and genotype cross-reactivity of hepatitis B preS-specific antibodies in subjects vaccinated with different dosage regimens of BM32
Inna Tulaeva, Carolin Cornelius, Petra Zieglmayer, René Zieglmayer, Patrick Lemell, Milena Weber, Margarete Focke-Tejkl, Alexander Karaulov, Rainer Henning, Rudolf Valenta
Published: August 24, 2020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102953